System Analysis and design

What do you understand by System Analysis and Design? Discuss the various steps in System Analysis and Design Process?
What are different stages in System Development Life Cycle?

Ans.: SAD refers to the process of examining a business situation with the intent of improving it through better procedures & methods. System Development generally is thought of as having two major components :
a) System Analysis
b) System Design

System Design is the process of planning. We must thoroughly understand the existing system and data mine how computer desk can be used to make its operation more effective. System design specifies how to achieve objectives.
System Analysis is the process of gathering and interpreting facts diagnosing problems and using information to recommend improvement to system. It specifies what the system should do. The system analysis is management between techniques which helps us in designing a new system or improving an existing system
System Development Life Cycle : System Development life cycle (SDLC) is used to plan and manage the system development process. Although it is primarily identified with structured analysis, the SDLC describes activities and functions that systems developers typically perform, regardless of how those activities and functions fit into a particular methodology. The SDLC model includes the following steps :
i) Systems Planning
ii) Systems Analysis
iii) Systems Design
iv) Systems Implementation
v) Systems Operation and Support

The SDLC is pictured as a waterfall model where the result of each phase, often called an end product or deliverable, flows down into the next phase. In reality, the systems development process is dynamic, and constant change is common.
Systems Planning : A system‘s planning usually begins with a formal request to the IT department, called a system‘s request that describes problems or desired changes in an information system or a business process. A system‘s request can come from a top manager, a planning team, a department head, or the IT department itself. The request can be very significant or relatively minor. A major request might involve a new information system or the replacement of an existing system that cannot handle current requirements. In contrast, a minor request might ask for a new feature or a change to the user interface in current system. The purpose of the planning phase is to identify clearly the nature and scope of the business opportunity or problem by performing a preliminary investigation, often called a feasibility study. The preliminary investigation is a critical step because the outcome will affect the entire development process. The end product, or deliverable, is a report that describes business considerations, reviews anticipated benefits and costs, and recommends a course of action based on economic, technical, and operational factors.
Systems Analysis : The purpose of the systems analysis phase is to understand business requirement and build a logical model of the new system. The first step is requirement modeling, where you define and describe business process. Requirement modeling continue the investigation that began during systems planning and involves various fact-finding techniques, such as interview, surveys, observation, and sampling. During the next tasks, data modeling, process modeling, and object modeling, you develop a logical model of business process the system must support. The model consists of various types of diagrams, depending on the methodology being used.
The end product for the systems analysis phase is the System Requirements Document. The systems requirements document describes management and user requirements, alternative plans and costs, and analysis your recommendation. Looking ahead to design and implementation, several possibilities exist: develop a new system in-house, purchase a commercial package, or modify an existing system.
Systems Design : The purpose of systems design is or create a blueprint for the new system that will satisfy all documented requirements, whether the system is being developed in-house or purchased as a package. During systems design, you identify all necessary outputs, inputs, interfaces, and processes. In addition, you design internal and external controls, including maintainable, and secure. The design is documented in the System Design Specification and presented to management and users for their review and approval. Management and user involvement is critical to avoid any misunderstandings about what the new system will do, how it will do it, and what it will cost.

Systems Implementation : During systems implementation, the new system is constructed. Programs are written, tested, and documented, and the system is installed. If the system was purchased as a package, systems analysts perform any necessary modifications and configurations. The objective of the implementation phase is to deliver a completely functioning and documented information system. At the conclusion of this phase, the system is ready for use. Final preparations include converting data to the new system‘s files, training of users, and performing the actual transition to the new system. The systems implementation phase also includes and assessment, called a systems evaluation, to determine whether the system operates properly and its costs and benefits are within expectations.
Systems Operation and Support (Maintenance) : During systems operation and support, the IT staff maintains and enhances the system. Maintenance change correct errors and adapt to changes in the environment, such as new tax rates. Enhancements provide new features and benefits. The objective during this phase is to maximize return on the IT investment. A well-designed system will be reliable, maintainable, and scalable. A scalable design can expand to meet new business requirements and volumes. Information systems development is always a work in progress. Business process change rapidly, and most information systems need to be replaced or significantly updated after several years of operation.

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