HTTP - Hypertext Transfer Protocol
HTTP is Hypertext Transfer protocol is used to communicate between servers and the web browser for transfer of resources and information. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application-layer protocol for transmitting hypermedia documents, such as HTML. It was designed for communication between web browsers and web servers, but it can also be used for other purposes. HTTP follows a classical client-server model, with a client opening a connection to make a request, then waiting until it receives a response. HTTP is a stateless protocol, meaning that the server does not keep any data (state) between two requests. Though often based on a TCP/IP layer, it can be used on any reliable transport layer, that is, a protocol that doesn't lose messages silently like UDP does. RUDP - the reliable update of UDP - is a suitable alternative.
HTTPs - Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure
Hypertext transfer protocol secure (HTTPS) is the secure version of HTTP, which is the primary protocol used to send data between a web browser and a website. HTTPS is encrypted in order to increase security of data transfer. This is particularly important when users transmit sensitive data, such as by logging into a bank account, email service, or health insurance provider. Any website, especially those that require login credentials, should use HTTPS. In modern web browsers such as Chrome, websites that do not use HTTPS are marked differently than those that are.
What is Transport Layer Security (TLS)?
Transport Layer Security, or TLS, is a widely adopted security protocol designed to facilitate privacy and data security for communications over the Internet. A primary use case of TLS is encrypting the communication between web applications and servers, such as web browsers loading a website. TLS can also be used to encrypt other communications such as email, messaging, and voice over IP (VoIP). In this article we will focus on the role of TLS in web application security. TLS was proposed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), an international standards organization, and the first version of the protocol was published in 1999. The most recent version is TLS 1.3, which was published in 2018.
What is an SSL certificate?
SSL, more commonly called TLS, is a protocol for encrypting Internet traffic and verifying server identity. Any website with an HTTPS web address uses SSL/TLS.
SSL certificates are what enable websites to move from HTTP to HTTPS, which is more secure. An SSL certificate is a data file hosted in a websites origin server. SSL certificates make SSL/TLS encryption possible, and they contain the websites public key and the website's identity, along with related information. Devices attempting to communicate with the origin server will reference this file to obtain the public key and verify the servers identity. The private key is kept secret and secure.
What information does an SSL certificate contain?
Every individual or business with an internet service plan will have two types of IP addresses: their private IP addresses and their public IP address. The terms public and private relate to the network location - that is, a private IP address is used inside a network, while a public one is used outside a network.
SSL certificates include:
- The domain name that the certificate was issued for
- Which person, organization, or device it was issued to
- Which certificate authority issued it
- The certificate authority's digital signature
- Associated subdomains
- Issue date of the certificate
- Expiration date of the certificate
- The public key (the private key is kept secret)
The public and private keys used for SSL are essentially long strings of characters used for encrypting and decrypting data. Data encrypted with the public key can only be decrypted with the private key, and vice versa.
Why do websites need an SSL certificate?
A website needs an SSL certificate in order to keep user data secure, verify ownership of the website, prevent attackers from creating a fake version of the site, and gain user trust.
Encryption: SSL/TLS encryption is possible because of the public-private key pairing that SSL certificates facilitate. Clients (such as web browsers) get the public key necessary to open a TLS connection from a servers SSL certificate.
Authentication : SSL certificates verify that a client is talking to the correct server that actually owns the domain. This helps prevent domain spoofing and other kinds of attacks.
HTTPS: Most crucially for businesses, an SSL certificate is necessary for an HTTPS web address. HTTPS is the secure form of HTTP, and HTTPS websites are websites that have their traffic encrypted by SSL/TLS.
In addition to securing user data in transit, HTTPS makes sites more trustworthy from a users perspective. Many users wont notice the difference between an http:// and an https:// web address, but most browsers have started tagging HTTP sites as not secure in more noticeable ways, attempting to provide incentive for switching to HTTPS and increasing security.